This site uses cookies. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

close x

Monthly Archives: February 2018

What is Learned Helplessness?

Woman alone and upset against grey sky, symbolising learned helplessness and inaction

Learned helplessness can make you feel more isolated and trapped than ever before.

Feeling helpless and hopeless can be very common with mental health issues, but when your past experiences fuel your sense of helplessness, and make you think you can never avoid certain behavioural patterns or outcomes, you may be affected by ‘learned helplessness’. So, what is learned helplessness and how can we treat it?

Learned helplessness is a phenomenon first studied in the 1960s and 70s by Martin Seligman and Steven F. Maier, who discovered it present in animals. Seligman and Maier’s experiments at the University of Pennsylvania found that dogs who’d received small electric shocks later gave up trying to jump over a fence and escape, as they believed they would be shocked again. The dogs had remembered their own helplessness and decided not to risk another shock. A comparative trial with dogs who hadn’t been shocked found that they jumped the fence.

What is Learned Helplessness in Practice?

Just as in animals, learned helplessness in humans is about applying negative past experiences to a present or future experience, even if your circumstances are different. Despite signs that you may have a positive outcome, or that you’re in a safer situation than before, you firmly believe you are powerless to seek help or change.

Related studies by clinical psychologists Abramson, Metalsky and Alloy, in 1989, established a sub-type of depression called hopelessness depression, and the hopelessness theory of suicide was publicised in 2000 by Abramson et al (if you are worried that someone is feeling so hopeless they may attempt suicide, do seek immediate help for them, through their GP, by calling 111 or talking to an organisation like the Samaritans).

We may see learned helplessness in relationship patterns: the person who believes their abusive past relationship will lead to future abusive partners; the child whose memories of neglect mean they are terrified of being abandoned, and believe abandonment is inevitable, even as an adult.

If your friend or relative shows signs of learned helplessness, you will probably feel frustrated. However much you tell them that things can get better, and that one or two bad experiences don’t make them powerless to change, your words may fall on deaf ears. People with learned helplessness may struggle with self-care and healthy habits, isolating themselves from the rest of the world. That’s when they need psychological intervention.

Treatment for Learned Helplessness

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is ideal for treating learned helplessness, because it involves working through your core beliefs and thought patterns. By analysing situations and automatic thoughts, you can start to believe in the future, move away from assumptions about inevitability, and trust in the power of change. Your future doesn’t have to mirror your past.

Written by guest contributor Vikram Das for Dr Chrissie Tizzard, Chartered Consultant Psychologist, PsychD, BSc, MSc, C.Psychol, C.Sci, AFBPS. Dr Tizzard is the Clinical Director of Christine Tizzard Psychology ( 

anxiety CBT depression Psychology therapy0 comments

International Women’s Day: Five Female Psychologists to Know

Famous female psychologists for International Women's Day including Anna Freud, Melanie Klein and Rosie Phillips Bingham.

Celebrate these great female psychologists who made a difference.

As International Women’s Day approaches (8th March), we felt it was only right to acknowledge some pioneering female psychologists throughout history, who so often get overlooked in favour of men.

You might not have heard of these female psychologists and psychoanalytic experts, but that’s okay – just be sure to pass on what you’ve learned, and spread the message that psychology isn’t a male-only career. There are many great women working hard, deserving of just as much credit.

Anna Freud (1895-1962)

Anna Freud’s legacy lives on with the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families, a charity centre where children can be psychoanalysed and given appropriate treatment. The centre began as a place for children bombed out of their homes in WWII. Since then, clinicians have been able to observe children playing and taking part in group activities, to support their development and relationship-building.

Freud’s father was Sigmund Freud, but she was the only one of his children to follow him into a psychoanalysis career. She published her first book, Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis, in 1927 and, in the same year, she became General Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association – a post she held until 1934. However, in 1938 she fled from Austria to Britain to escape the Nazis.

By 1947, she was officially training fledgling child therapists. Her specialisms included children who had suffered poverty, emotional neglect, a family unit crisis, hospitalisation and other trauma; she changed the way clinicians approach separation anxiety in children. Her own childhood experience of having an appendectomy without being forewarned by her family may have played a part in this interest.

Melanie Klein (1882-1960)

‘What we learn about the child and the adult through psychoanalysis shows that all the sufferings of later life are for the most part repetitions of these earlier ones.’

Klein was born in Vienna, but it wasn’t until she began travelling around central Europe that she realised her passion for psychoanalysis. She joined the prestigious Berlin Psychoanalytical Society aged 38, and began applying Freudian teachings to analysis of children, studying them at play and using her case notes as the basis for her own theories. She later moved to London and joined the British Psychoanalytical Society, clashing with Anna Freud on aspects of child psychology.

Her caseload included studying child evacuees during WWII. Klein went on to study depression, paranoid schizophrenia and loneliness, and the Wellcome Library holds an archive of her published papers, books and notes. Her most famous books are Love, Guilt and Reparation and other works (1921-45), The Psychoanalysis of Children (1932), and Envy and Gratitude (1957).

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013)

As a psychology professor and chair of the psychology department at Yale University (where she obtained her undergraduate degree), Nolen-Hoeksema was known for her interest in women’s mental health, from ruminating thoughts to depression, and how they differed from the male experience. Famously, in 1987 she highlighted some of the reasons women are more prone to depression than men, and mainly analysed it from adolescence upwards.

Nolen-Hoeksema earned her Ph.D. at Pennsylvania University and worked at the universities of Stanford and Michigan before returning to Yale. Her books included Sex Differences in Depression (1990), Women Who Think Too Much (2003), and Women Conquering Depression (2010), plus she edited an academic journal, the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, from 2003.

She was passionate about identifying early indicators of mood disorders, eating disorders and addiction in young girls: primarily, the danger of unregulated ruminating thoughts, which not only distress patients, but discourage them from seeking help. Nolen-Hoeksema warned that, despite growing freedom and moves towards gender equality around the world, women can still fall victim to an ‘epidemic of overthinking’.

Rosie Phillips Bingham (1949-)

‘To deem my ideas as ordinary on Monday, but the same idea is brilliant when my white male colleagues delivers the idea on Wednesday is discouraging; in the classroom, to overlook the raised hands of students of colour is demoralizing.’

Currently President of the American Psychological Association (APA), Phillips Bingham has dedicated her career to counselling psychology, particularly for men and women of colour, who face conscious or unconscious prejudice. In 1996, she was given the Pioneering African American Women Award.

Phillips Bingham gained her Ph.D. in Counselling Psychology from Ohio State University in 1977 and then balanced teaching and practice in both the University of Florida and the University of Memphis. Her published papers tend to focus on career counselling, racial equality, and the importance of college (university) education. We know attending university is a challenging and formative experience, and Phillips Bingham’s work ensures that students in need of emotional support or guidance will be helped to thrive.

Bluma Zeigarnik (1901-1988)

Lithuanian Jewish Zeigarnik became one of the first Russian women to attend university, and obtaining a doctorate from the University of Berlin in 1927. Yet she faced political and ideological obstacles throughout her life. Even in 1983, when she was given the Lewin Memorial Award for her psychological research, she was unable to collect it, and died before she could receive the award – particularly galling, as she had spent years working with her friend and colleague, Kurt Lewin, who the award was named after.

She worked at the Psychiatric Research Institute and the All-Union Institute of Experimental Medicine in Moscow, but was made to leave the latter in the 1950s due to anti-Semitism. Many of her scientific papers were suppressed under government restrictions. She also raised her two children single-handedly when her husband was sentenced to 10 years in a Russian prison for allegedly spying for the Germans.

The Zeigarnik effect (discovered in 1927) demonstrates that people remember incomplete or interrupted tasks better than completed ones. Zeigarnik undertook her research with adults and then children, but found the effect was obvious in both, and it made a huge contribution to gestalt psychology.

If you know someone who should have been on this list, do tweet us their name (we are @CT_Psychology on Twitter).

Written by guest contributor Polly Allen for Dr Chrissie Tizzard, Chartered Consultant Psychologist, PsychD, BSc, MSc, C.Psychol, C.Sci, AFBPS. Dr Tizzard is the Clinical Director of Christine Tizzard Psychology ( 

Psychology therapy0 comments

What is a Panic Attack, and How Can You Treat It?

Panic attack response depicted in 'get me out of here' slogan and red button symbolising panic and alarm

A panic attack can make you feel trapped and afraid. Learn how to cope with panic attacks below.

In 2013, people in the UK experienced 8.2 million cases of anxiety; whilst anxiety is upsetting and debilitating in itself, a panic attack sees this anxiety come to a head. Panic attacks are an intense and sudden onset of anxiety, lasting minutes at a time and leaving the sufferer debilitated. Many celebrities, including presenter Fearne Cotton, are now speaking out about their experience of having a panic attack.

But how do you know what a panic attack symptom is, and how can you cope with an attack?

Symptoms of a Panic Attack

You may feel as though you’re having a heart attack – that’s because a lot of the physical symptoms are similar to those of people experiencing a cardiac arrest. If you later realise what you actually went through was a panic attack, don’t be embarrassed by the confusion. Whilst panic attacks aren’t life-threatening, your body reacts as though you’re in a life-and-death situation. That ‘fight or flight’ mode has been activated, and you feel threatened.

Key symptoms include:

  • · Feeling dizzy, faint, shaky or light-headed
  • · A racing pulse, possibly with chest pain
  • · Difficulty breathing
  • · Tightness in your throat
  • · Nausea
  • · Sweating and feeling very hot, or the opposite: feeling too cold
  • · Sudden terror and dread
  • · Numbness or tingling in your hands and fingers
  • · Feeling detached from reality, or as if you are floating

What to Do if You Have a Panic Attack

Most panic attacks last from five to ten minutes, though some can be longer. Once you’ve had a panic attack, it doesn’t necessarily mean you’ll have another one, but it does increase the likelihood.

If your panic attack happens in a large public space, such as a shopping mall or a concert venue, be reassured that many staff are now trained to deal with these kinds of incidents. Should you be somewhere on your own, or with someone who doesn’t know how to help, you can still get through it.

  • · Firstly, you need to regulate your breathing, which will help to lower your heart rate. Breathing exercises don’t have to be complicated: breathe in through your nose, then breathe out slower and longer through your mouth.
  • · Try to draw breath from your diaphragm, as shallow breathing isn’t helpful here. Imagine the breath going down into your chest.
  • · Repeat a short phrase or mantra to remind yourself this will pass – for example: ‘I’m not in danger, I am having a panic attack’, or ‘The slower I breathe, the calmer I feel’.
  • · Try to focus on the sensations around you, as long as they’re not triggering: what can you hear? What can you smell? Can you feel the chair you’re sitting on?
  • · Alternatively, focus on an object you can see. Zone out on everything else but that object; this practice is called ‘grounding’ and should help you refocus, rather than leaving your mind racing as fast as your pulse.
  • · Release muscle tension you might be carrying, like hunched shoulders or clenched fists. Do a ‘body scan’ and work your way around your body, imagining the tension in each part easing.
  • · Once a panic attack has subsided (and it will, even though it doesn’t seem possible at the time), you will probably feel drained and upset – this is normal. Get plenty of rest where possible, and don’t throw yourself head-first into a hectic routine.
  • · Caffeine, alcohol and cigarettes can all worsen panic attacks, so try to avoid them. Instead, stay hydrated and eat regularly to avoid low blood sugar levels.

How to Help Someone Having a Panic Attack

  • · Stay as calm as possible and try to take charge of the situation – talk in a calm voice and don’t dismiss the person as overreacting or attention-seeking.
  • · Help them focus on their breathing, taking slow and deep breaths together: in through the nose, out through the mouth, as mentioned above.
  • · Follow the other panic attack tips previously listed, and don’t worry if something doesn’t calm them down. Different people respond in different ways. The main thing is to find what does work to take away that panic – maybe a mantra with breathing exercises, or a body scan with breathing exercises – and guide them through it.
  • · It may help if they close their eyes as they breathe. If crowds and noise are definitely making things worse during the attack, gently move with them to a quieter area, but otherwise try to ride out the attack where you are.
  • · Remind them the attack will be over soon, and it is nothing to feel bad about. Tell them everything will be okay.
  • · Encourage someone who has regular or prolonged panic attacks to seek professional help, especially if they start regulating their behaviour to try and combat the panic (for example, they stop using public transport because they worry about having a panic attack whilst on the bus or the train).

Therapy for Panic Attacks

A therapist would look for the underlying cause of panic attacks by exploring possible triggers and associated memories with the patient. Reliving those memories will be distressing, but talking to a psychologist means you are in a safe and confidential space where you can develop strategies to deal with the difficult emotions and thoughts that come hand in hand with the panic and anxiety. You may be asked to keep a panic diary, logging your symptoms and potential triggers.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) can help with panic disorders, where someone has repeated panic attacks and may end up avoiding certain places or situations to try and cope. Through CBT, you can learn to overcome your fears and regain control.

You may find it also helps to get peer support from other people living with panic attacks, through charities like No Panic or Anxiety UK, but therapeutic intervention and, if a doctor suggests it, medication, is also worth exploring for panic disorders.

Written by guest contributor Vikram Das for Dr Chrissie Tizzard, Chartered Consultant Psychologist, PsychD, BSc, MSc, C.Psychol, C.Sci, AFBPS. Dr Tizzard is the Clinical Director of Christine Tizzard Psychology ( 

anxiety wellbeing0 comments