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Category Archives: News

To Smack or Not to Smack? A Sting in the Tail

Child reeling from parent's smack - physical abuse and smacking debate

Delivering a smack to your child: cruelty or discipline?

To smack or not to smack?  The debate rages on. Max Pemberton, a journalist and NHS psychiatrist, has caused a bit of a stir. He claimed that smacking doesn’t cause deep-seated psychological damage to children.

The issue was also aired on the TV show Good Morning Britain, on Tuesday 15th August. ‘Parenting Guru’ Sue Atkins and pro-smacker Katie Ivens both argued their cases, amidst some input from Jeremy Kyle (read more about the debate here).

In the wake of these opposing media views, I’d like to invite Dr Pemberton and Ms Ivens to shadow me on a working day. A working day where the effects of child violence, often verbally disguised as discipline, are all too poignantly seen. In a few cases, with tragic consequences.

The legal position on smacking: UK, Wales, Scotland and Ireland

Currently, smacking a child is legal in the UK as long as it doesn’t result in visible injury, but some members of the Welsh government and Scottish Parliament are lobbying for change. In December 2015, Ireland removed the ‘reasonable punishment’ exception and made smacking illegal.

In theory, many would agree that the occasional controlled smack, carried out by a loving parent, does not harm kids in the long term.

Imagine a situation where your toddler suddenly runs into a busy road.  There’s no time call him back.  Instinct ensures that you grab him, often roughly, by the nearest part of his body to prevent a tragedy.

This is necessary manhandling, fuelled by adrenaline. Most of us have done this and followed it up with a hug of relief, thankful our child is safe.  When a smack follows, rather than a hug of relief, what is it really about?  Is it to teach? Is it an outward expression of parental rage, a venting of feelings of failure for taking the eye off the ball so to speak? Is it perhaps an asserting of adult control over a smaller individual?  Is smacking for the good of the child, or to soothe the bruised adult ego?

In spite of this argument, there may be a case for smacking, but consider this. If all parents’ had adequate ego control, positive coping strategies and good emotional regulation, perhaps controlled smacking might be acceptable on some occasions.

The line between a controlled smack and physical abuse

The hard truth is, the abused children we clinicians meet up and down the country have never experienced a controlled smack in an environment of care.

The reality is that many children are physically abused daily under the pretence of smacking and good discipline.

When a parent loses control and physically chastises a child (which is often how smacking happens), it is often explained as disciplining an out-of-control child.

The situation is often that the parent has snapped, has in the moment lost parenting skills, and has instead reacted physically to the child’s behaviour.

Smacking would be okay, perhaps, if all adults could remain rational, calm and in control of their emotional regulation in times of stress.

The huge number of physical abuse cases show that many parents have neither the emotional resilience or practical skills to manage their children’s difficult behaviour and resort instead to physical punishment.  A smack in the hands of an angry and out of control adult can escalate into extreme violence. This is often under the misguided notion of discipline.

Physical abuse is one of the primary causes of both attachment difficulties in children, and more enduring mental health conditions. This is a primary reason why smacking is not acceptable. Smacking is the thin end of the wedge.

Written by Dr Chrissie Tizzard, Chartered Consultant Psychologist, PsychD, BSc, MSc, C.Psychol, C.Sci, AFBPS. Dr Tizzard is the Clinical Director of Christine Tizzard Psychology (ctpsy.co.uk). 

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Walking Towards a Better Mood – New Research

Walking in front of a brick wall that says 'good' in a mural - suggesting walking is good for you

Walking towards a better mood.

It’s official: walking off a negative mood, and seeing quick results no matter what your speed, is possible.

A team of researchers at Iowa State University have confirmed that walking can blast away a negative mood. Better still, it does not need to be a fast aerobic stroll. Astonishingly, a 12-minute walk at speeds of just 3mph will raise a bad mood.

A study involving 400 undergraduates at Iowa State University and published in the Journal Of New Emotion has confirmed this amazing fact.

Surprisingly, the researchers also found that the walk location was unimportant. Forget the thought of the beautiful Sussex downs in autumn hues.  Participants who merely walked around an urban, drab and featureless university concourse (not to shame those at Iowa – many campuses aren’t easy on the eye) were just as likely to report an improvement in mood as those who had walked in beautiful surroundings.

Even students who walked on a treadmill for 12 minutes reported an increased mood. In contrast, those who sat at the end of the treadmill waiting for their friends felt worse than when they entered the gym.

Walking Off a Bad Mood: Why You Should Try It

Jeffrey Miller, study author and assistant professor at Saint Xavier University, said: “There seems to be something about that brisk, purposeful walk that is really good for you.”

The study increases the previously held view that even a short walk can be a valuable counter-measure in a difficult situation. So, what are you waiting for? You could take some of the heat out of that imminent meeting with the boss. It is certainly worth a try.

These findings also add weight to the already well-known physical benefits of walking.  Previous research has concluded that regular walking can slow dementia progression, prevent osteoarthritis, lower overall cancer risk and help in weight and blood pressure maintenance.

Try walking the next time you feel stress or worry clouding your thoughts: no matter the location, the walk itself could make a tangible difference to your mood.

Written by Dr Chrissie Tizzard, Chartered Consultant Psychologist, PsychD, BSc, MSc, C.Psychol, C.Sci, AFBPS. Dr Tizzard is the Clinical Director of Christine Tizzard Psychology (ctpsy.co.uk). 

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The Academy Fire Selsey – A Loss

THE SELSEY ACADEMY FIRE – Moving forward.  

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The Selsey Academy Fire

The 21st August 2016 was a sad day for Selsey.  The Selsey Academy fire will go down in the history of the town.

It will be remembered in a similar way to the tornado that ripped through roofs in January 1998.  After the tornado the stoical folks of Selsey pulled together.  Yesterday, some 18 years later, the ‘Selsey Spirit’ rose  again.  Social media helped mobilise the ‘troops’ who organised themselves efficiently to supply food and drink to the firefighters. The smoke has cleared. The reality has begun to bite.  Selsey has lost a focal point of the community.

Similar to Bereavement

The feelings that arise are similar to those of bereavement. Nobody has died yet a sense of loss hangs in the air.

There is initial shock. Statements are heard like ‘This can’t be true’, (Denial).  Quite quickly awareness widens to acknowledgement.  The Academy was destroyed by fire. It will leave a gap in the community. As the reality sets in, some people will express anger.  Already and without concrete evidence there have been claims that the fire must have been started by an arson attack.  When people feel helpless, the blame game is played. To play the blame game a  ‘scapegoat’ is needed.   You will hear questions like – Were the firefighters quick enough? and Were there sprinklers fitted in the building?

Each of these comments are normal when individuals feel powerless. The objective of the blame game is to feel less powerless.  Try not to buy into it. It divides us and delays the process of moving forward.  After this comes a sense of sadness for what was lost. Finally, acceptance will be reached and we will be able to move forward as a community.

The town is going through a process of disbelief, anger, blaming and sadness. All of this is normal and takes time until we reach acceptance

Possible effects on pupils

For students the process is more difficult. They need to adapt to the loss of their school. There is  likely to be a period of anxiety about the future and about where they will go to school. They will also worry about their friendships.

Parents may notice a quietness in their children or an increase in teenage moodiness. They need time to adjust. This is big news to them. Their cognitive systems need time to process this knowledge. Children who have experienced a change in family situation in the last 12 months may feel the uncertainty more. Take time to listen to your child’s concerns and respond with the actual knowledge you have.

At present the precise arrangements for the children’s schooling is not clear, it can’t be as yet.  It’s crucial that the children are supported at this time.

Parents can help by reassuring their child that clear plans are being made for their education. It may take a while to fine tune the details but what is certain is that a practical solution is being developed.

It is an unpleasant situation but if handled sensitively, your child will have developed important coping strategies and an ability to manage unexpected change. This lesson will be as important as any formal teaching of emotional intelligence.

 

Witten by Christine Tizzard Psychology

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PTSD Triggers – The Known and Unknown

triggers of ptsd

 

It had been a perfect day, despite PTSD.

You were having fun. All of a sudden the fear, the flashbacks, the avoidance and the panic of PTSD returns. Why now?

This is the question often asked by patients in clinic. There is a simple answer: panic frequently re-appears in PTSD.  When it does, it often reduces sufferers to jelly.

This often happens suddenly and without warning.  It is all to do with PTSD triggers – things that resemble or remind the brain of the original traumatic incident.

Big triggers and small triggers can both cause a massive panic response

Most people are aware of the big things connected with a trauma. Some people consciously make a list of things that were connected with the traumatic incident – these lists become their conscious trauma triggers.  They believe that they can then anticipate the ‘hot spots’ and take action to manage the uncomfortable scenarios. However, this doesn’t often work. The problem is, it’s the unconscious and unknown triggers that knock us off balance and onto our knees.

For example, Gill* is a successful career woman.  She was raped six months ago, on her way home from a nightclub. Gill is very aware of certain triggers: she is scared of being alone in town at night, particularly in a certain part of town.  She also jumps at the sight of a certain make of car, and freezes if she hears any door slam. 

Gill recalled that recently she was hosting a presentation at her gallery in Geneva.  All was well.  There were many high-profile clients attending. Naturally, she wanted to make a great impression.  Instead, she suddenly found her mind racing, her heart pounding, and a pressing desire to sprint right out of the room.

At that moment, she felt that her very survival depended on escaping. She lurched to the ladies room, where involuntary shaking gave way to floods of tears.  The presentation now seemed a threat. She was unable to regain her composure.  Instead, she called a friend to collect her and left by the back entrance.

Hidden PTSD triggers

It was the following week, during treatment, that she suddenly recalled that she had registered a strong smell of a particular masculine fragrance at the gallery presentation. She remembered that her attacker had smelt the same. She hadn’t been aware of that hidden piece of the jigsaw previously.

Suddenly it made sense: it had been an unconscious trigger, that had remained below consciousness until the evening of the presentation.  Now she is aware of a new trigger, she is able to use techniques learnt in therapy to tolerate her acute sense of fear.  She is able to use learnt strategies to reduce that trigger’s effect on her.

PTSD set-backs are temporary

The point is that, for as many triggers we are aware of, there are also just as many that remain out of range.  These are like rocks under the water. It is so important to recognise this fact.

It is tough to accept that, even where fantastic progress is made during treatment, there are likely to be temporary set-backs.  But these set backs are exactly that: temporary ones. This is the nature of PTSD.

*Client’s name and occupatiation has been changed due to client confidentiality.

Written by Dr Chrissie Tizzard, Chartered Consultant Psychologist, BSc, MSc, PsychD, C.Psychol, C.Sci, AFBPS. Find out about EMDR treatment for PTSD at Christine Tizzard Psychology here

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Terror Attacks – Helping Kids Cope

Worried about terror attacks and the effects on children's mental health - upset child in profile

Is your child worried and upset by the recent terror attacks?

It is every parent’s nightmare: despite your best attempts, somehow your 6-year-old daughter has learnt of recent terror attacks.

She is scared and tearful. She asks you if she or you are going to be hurt by bad people. She tells you there are some ‘mean’ people who want to hurt others.

You don’t want her  innocence to be lost so soon; at the same time, you do want to be truthful. This is a scenario that every parent fears. It is also, sadly, one we are having to deal with more frequently. What is the best way of handling it? How does a parent explain terror attacks?

The most important thing, which most adults forget, is: a child who has a secure relationship with their parents already has a fortress of containment. This is the best possible starting point for tackling the unpalatable. You can reduce the fear of terror attacks through everyday parenting.

Parents view terror and trauma from an adult perspective, through adult eyes. We recognise the ugliness of horror and atrocity. Small children have not yet developed this depth of understanding, thank goodness. Their innocence is also a protection. Unless Children are directly affected by trauma, they don’t recognise it in quite the same way as adults, unless we teach them through our own fear. It’s really important that your children do not see your fear, your rage or your feelings of powerlessness in response to a terror attack. If a child knows their parents are scared, they will be too.

Explaining terror attacks to your children: Eight things to consider

  1. For children, a secure and containing relationship with a parent, or another attachment figure, is the most important safety feature that protects them from acute fear.
  2.  Explain that there are a few bad people in the world who want to cause harm but that there are many more good people. Fictional characters can often be used as good examples for younger children.  They are often powerful archetypes of strength and character that children can easily relate to.
  3. Tell them the good people in the world outnumber the bad. Point out all the people who your child knows who help others in different ways. These people could be friends, family members, teachers, doctors etc.…
  4. Tell them that they have no need to worry, as Mum, Dad, Nanny, or another attachment figure, will always keep them safe. Explain to them that it is the parents’ job to protect them from the few bad people in the world.
  5. Never provide more information than needed about a horrific situation. Use factual language, but avoid the over use of descriptive phrases and pronouns.  It’s correct to say ‘Some people were hurt’, rather than ‘Some people had their arms and legs smashed or crushed’.
  6. Always answer their questions truthfully, in a basic age-appropriate manner.
  7. Try to find a positive balancing thought to your child’s concern. In the case of the events in Nice, a balancing thought would be: a) The good and brave people who stepped in to help, or b) The doctors who are working round the clock to make the injured better.
  8. The focus here is to help the child balance their nebulous fear of bad people posing a threat in the world, with concrete evidence of the certainty of many better people in the world. This will help a child to form a mental representation of safely, particularly a young child, where the ability to engage in abstract thinking is not yet developed.

If your child does want to engage with the news, they may find it useful to look at the BBC’s Newsround, aimed at children aged 6-13; find an interview with Newsround’s deputy editor, Kirsti Adair, here.

Written by Dr Chrissie Tizzard Chartered Consultant Psychologist. 

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Is it good or bad to praise the kids? It all depends on how it is done.

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To praise or not to praise, that is the question.

Several research reports published recently have asserted that ‘overpraising’ children can actually set them up to fail. One such study carried out at Utrecht University in the Netherlands found that over exaggerated praise is well intended, but for. kids who have low self-esteem it can make them less confident. Eddie Brummelhein, a doctoral student at Utrecht, states that praise causes less confident children to believe that they must constantly achieve to a high level. Unfortunately, this belief actually stops those students trying new tasks in case they fail.

A similar study found that telling pupils they are clever before an examination can actually worsen their grades. The rationale is that in telling a student that they are bright can increase performance anxiety and fear of failure.

It is understandable that some parents are left feeling a little confused. Mums and Dads are left thinking do I or do I not praise my child? What is helpful encouragement and what is potentially damaging? So should you praise your child?
The answer is a resounding ‘Yes’. It is good to praise your child and to start praising them early. The guiding rule is that praise must be appropriate to the task accomplished. It must also be earned.

Exaggerated praise, however well-meaning is likely to eventually backfire. Too much praise and your child may acquire a tendency to give up early on tasks or to over inflate their skills. These behaviours could eventually result in underperformance, a lack of general efficacy and ultimately the Achilles syndrome, (the secret fear of failure.) Appropriate praise and encouragement on the other hand builds genuine self-esteem and self-confidence. Well-proportioned praise leads to self-belief.
The development of self-belief is essential for the concepts of stamina, perseverance and successful problem solving.

It is also the case that children are able to recognise when you are over egging the praise. When an adult gives exaggerated praise, children tend to think you are ‘bigging up’ their skills because they are really not good at something. Essentially praise that was meant to build esteem actually kills it stone dead. Some professionals assert that praise makes a child dependant on an adult and instead encourage parents to simply reflect back to the child what they have accomplished. ‘Oh you finished that puzzle’ rather than ‘well done for finishing the puzzle’. The belief being that the child will respond to ‘Oh you finished that puzzle’ with ‘I am clever’. This is potentially dangerous thinking. A young child needs to hear positive reinforcement to develop the ability to self-evaluate. They are unable to self-evaluate fully unless they are shown how to do this.

Many decades ago the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky in his seminal work on child development spoke of the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and the role that parents play in scaffolding or helping a child to extend their skills beyond their chronological age. Praise given correctly is a vital component in scaffolding a child’s emotional and physical development. This remains true.
The key is to provide appropriate and encouraging praise in a timely and proportioned manner. It is not overpraising every routine thing your child does. The most effective praise contains the message ‘you have done well and you have the potential to build on this’. Not, ‘you are fabulous’, the ‘cleverest’ and the ‘greatest star’, even if, like most parents you really believe they are.

References:

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes (M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner & E. Souberman., Eds.) (A. R. Luria, M. Lopez-Morillas & M. Cole [with J. V. Wertsch], Trans.) Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. (Original manuscripts [ca. 1930-1934])

Written by Dr Christine Tizzard Consultant Chartered Adult, Child and Adolescent Psychologist. Clinical Director Sheehan Brooke Psychology. Chichester. www.sheehanbrooke.org
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Mindfulness and its role in reducing inflammation

 

Mindfulness and its role in reducing inflammation in auto immune disease.

A recent research study carried out at the University of Wisconsin-Madison found a link between the practice of mindfulness and reduced inflammation in auto immune disease.

Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, sarcoidosis and asthma all feature increased inflammation causing pain and distress. In some cases disease activity results in disability, organ malfunction and a marked deterioration in quality of life.

At an intuitive level people who practice mindfulness report that it reduces their stress and pain levels.

Less stress in the system is believed to result in a decrease in the production of the stress hormone, Cortisol. Less Cortisol production, it seems may contribute to reduced inflammation. Less inflammation in chronic disease is very welcome news.

As an example, perhaps you have noticed that after a few days on vacation your pain level seems lower. You may have also recognised that soon after you return home you start to feel worse again. It is well known that pain and anxiety levels seem to increase during stressful periods.

The practice of mindfulness can help you accomplish what is important and necessary to you without increasing your stress levels. Living fully in the present moment has a positive effect on general wellbeing.

Increasingly, it is also believed that meditation has a positive effect on disease activity. This is particularly so when mindfulness is combined with a diet rich in antioxidants and appropriate exercise is taken. It is crucial to state that before starting an exercise routine you must seek medical advice. More research is needed to fully understand the positive effects of mindfulness on inflammation

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), originally designed for patients with chronic pain, consists of continuously focusing attention on the breath, bodily sensations and mental content while seated, walking or practicing yoga.

Sheehan Brooke Psychology is undertaking a research pilot study which will attempt to investigate the effects of Mindfulness on wellbeing in patients having a diagnosis of auto immune disease.

To achieve their objective the organisation is running the 8 week MBCT/MBSR programme specifically for people who have a diagnosis of auto immune illness. It will commence at the beginning of March 2014.

The only requirement is that participants agree to have their inflammatory markers tested by their GP. This involves a simple blood test at the beginning of the study and again six months later. Full information is available from Sheehan Brooke Psychology.

The MBSR programme will take place at the Sheehan Brooke Clinic Nr Chichester, West Sussex. The eight week programme is completely free to participants who agree to take part in the pilot study.

Sheehan Brooke also welcome enquiries from chartered psychologists having a research background and training in mindfulness who are interested in conducting the research in other locations in the UK and US

If you are interested in learning the practice of mindfulness and have been diagnosed with an auto immune illness please do get in touch.

The research study will be led by consultant chartered psychologist Chrissie Tizzard.
Chrissie is also chartered scientist who has undergone training in mindfulness and has completed a research doctorate using quantative and qualitative methods at Roehampton University.

Sheehan Brooke provide a range of Mindfulness courses and longer retreats in the UK and Cyprus.

Sheehan Brooke Psychology 9, The Courtyard, Trident Business Park, Selsey, Chichester, West Sussex PO20 9TY. Telephone 01243 775055

Taking the heat out of inflammation.

Taking the heat out of inflammation.

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Anxiety: Why is it so hard to overcome?

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Why is anxiety so hard to overcome?

For many people anxiety can become a way of life. It tends to begin with worries about a certain thing or issue. Before long anxiety can seem all consuming. What once seemed simple to achieve now feels as hard as attempting to climb Mount Everest.
CTP see many clients in clinic who are reliant on medications such as Propranolol or Diazepam. They often believe they need these to function. Medication is often useful in the short term. For instance, it can be very helpful during an acute crisis.  It is not intended or recommended for routine daily use. Clients often find that when they stop taking medication their anxiety returns. The good news is, it’s  possible to break this pattern when you learn how to.

Anxiety – Why is it getting worse?

Why does anxiety become so disabling and how can get your life back?  The simple answer is that when we feel anxious most of us are motivated to find a quick fix that will remove the unpleasant sensations. The quickest way to feel better is often to avoid a feared situation. When we ‘avoid’ we experience immediate relief.
The bad news is that avoidance usually results in an increased fear of the situation we avoided. This ramping up of fear makes the next attempt even harder. Worse still, anxiety also becomes attached to things, places and events associated with the original fear. It becomes easy to see how anxiety increases over time. In fact many clients say that they feel a prisoner to their anxiety.
The bottom line is, to experience less anxiety, it is necessary to face fears. To achieve success, this must be done in a safe and gradual manner. Remember we are speaking about anxiety not genuinely dangerous situations.

Anxiety Tips

 1. The best way to get rid of anxiety is to slowly confront your fears. This is referred to as a gradual exposure. You may do this alone, with a partner or friend or with a therapist.

2. To confront fears successfully, you must be able to gradually increase your tolerance of discomfort. Concentrating on your breathing will be helpful. Learning basic mindfulness strategies will also be useful. There are many self-help books or courses on the subject.

3. Remember that small amounts of felt discomfort do not mean there is danger present. Take a moment to reframe your thoughts. A reframed and helpful thought might be ‘small amounts of emotional discomfort are clear opportunities for navigating change’. Alternatively, you might say ‘I am feeling nervous about doing this, if I press on I am increasing my tolerance. It will become easier with practice’. Your growing tolerance of small amounts of discomfort mean you are on the way to conquering your fear.

4. Break your plan to overcome a specific anxiety into small manageable steps. It is crucial that the steps you design are small but still large enough to cause some mild discomfort. Steps should not be overwhelming. Most people who are unable to overcome their anxiety fail because they make the goals too high and become overwhelmed. Goals that are too big simply increase anxiety and make the process much harder.

5. If a step seems too huge break it down into a smaller step. Although this might make you feel impatient, it is the safest and quickest way to achieve your goal.

6. Practice each step before moving onto the next. You should be able to complete each step without feeling anxiety before moving to the next step.

7. Reward yourself when you have accomplished each step.

8. If you fail, regroup and try again. Failing is part of the success process.

9. If  anxiety persists after working through this hierarchy, you may wish to consider professional help.

Written by Christine Tizzard Psychology, Chichester, West Sussex
CTP  is an independent psychology provider based in Chichester, West Sussex.
We have clinics located in Portsmouth, Brighton and Harley Street. A full range of assessment and treatment services are available. All our chartered psychologists are registered with the HCPC and British Psychological Society.

 

 

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Banish The Blues! Free depression group begins 28th January 11.00am

Banish the Blues! Depression group in the Chichester area.

Feeling depressed or blue?  FREE 4 week CBT group (banish the blues) begins on Tues 28th January at 11.00am at Sheehan Brooke. There will only be a maximum of five people in the group. Text, Tweet, or Telephone to reserve your place NOW.
Sheehan Brooke is an independent psychology provider registered with the BPS and HCPC. The CBT group will be facilitated by a Chartered Psychologist. This is a free event for the local community.
During the 4 week course you will learn strategies to improve your mood and increase your general wellbeing.shutterstock_81215629 (2)

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How to complete a NYE personal review that will promote self growth in 2014

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With New Year’s Eve just around the corner, this next week is the perfect time to take a pause, sip a glass of wine and complete a personal year review. Be honest. How did last year go? What went well? What didn’t?

A personal review is a powerful tool, the fact that it remains private means that it is possible to be brutally honest with oneself? Gaining an awareness into ones deeper processes and motivation is an essential step towards self-fulfilment and perhaps even self-actualisation. The questions that follow may help you to identify key strengths that may be built upon and allow you to gain access to areas of functioning you might wish to improve.

What was the best thing that happened in 2013? What made it so good?

Which was my greatest accomplishment? Why?

What was my biggest failure and what did failure teach me?

How can I use the learning from past failures to ensure future success?

What word, phrase or theme describes my year?

What aspect was the most challenging in 2013?

What strengths did the challenge illuminate?

What weaknesses were made visible?

What are three things I am most grateful for?

What brought me the most joy?

What do I need to do more of to feel happier, self-fulfilled or at peace?

It can be useful to complete your personal review questions slowly  and with thought and to periodically revisit your responses.  The personal review does not carry the threat of  entering special measures if a response is negative.  Rather a negative response should be viewed as a potential gift and a chance to see that which can be improved upon.  It is only through a heightened awareness that change can be achieved.

Written by Sheehan Brooke Psychology.
Sheehan Brooke is an independent psychology provider based on the south coast of England. In addition to providing a wide range of clinical services to both the private and public sector, the organisation places a large focus on bringing positive psychology to the individual throughout the lifespan.  Please visit our websites www.sheehanbrooke.org and www.sheehan-brooke-family-mediation.co.uk  or connect with us on Facebook and Twitter.

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